Linux For Beginners Resources
This page contains links to the resources in Linux for Beginners: An Introduction to the Linux Operating System and Command Line. If you would like to see the video training course based on Linux for Beginners, click here. For even more training courses, visit the Linux Training Academy.
First Things First: Getting Access
- Shared web hosting providers:
- 4 Quick and Easy Ways to Get Access to a Shell Account and Start Learning Linux Today – This article covers more options and goes into greater detail.
- Create, Build, Test Drive, or Deploy Your Very Own Linux Server with Full Root Access – An article with even more strategies for getting access to Linux servers.
- How to Install VirtualBox on Mac – A video that guides you through the installation of VirtualBox on Mac.
- How to Install VirtualBox on Windows – A video that guides you through the installation of VirtualBox on Windows.
- SimpleShell – Free Linux shell account limited to 15 minute sessions.
- VirtualBox Documentation – Official VirtualBox documentation.
- VirtualBox download page – Where to obtain a copy of the VirtualBox software.
- VirtualBoxes.org – A good source of virtual disk images.
- 21 Windows SSH Clients You Can Use to Connect to Your Linux Server – An article that lists 21 of the most popular Windows SSH clients.
- List of Mac SSH clients
- List of SSH clients, all platforms
- List of Terminal Emulators – Includes terminals for Windows, Mac, and Linux.
- List of Telnet Clients
- List of Windows SSH clients
- OpenSSH.org – The official website for OpenSSH.
- Watch Star Wars over a telnet connection.
- To disconnect, hold down the
Ctrlkey and press the right bracket (
]). At the
telnet >prompt type
- Using SSH Public Key Authentication
Welcome to Shell
Linux Directory Structure
Listing Files and Understanding
- Escaping Special Characters in Linux and Unix: With 7 Practical Examples – An article that takes a in-depth look at escaping.
File and Directory Permissions Explained
- Binary Number System – There are only 10 kinds of people in the world: those who understand binary and those who don’t.
- Every Possible Unix/Linux Umask Mode – An article that lists every possible
- Modes – Detailed permission information.
- SELinux – The official SELinux project page.
- Special File Permissions – An article describing setuid, setgid, and the sticky bit.
- Ubuntu ACL Documentation – ACL documentation that applies not only to Ubuntu, but to other Linux distributions as well.
- Find – Ubuntu documentation on the find command.
- Locate – An article on the locate command.
- The /etc/passwd file – An article on the
Viewing and Editing Files
- AbiWord – A MicroSoft Word replacement.
- All Your Base Are Belong To Us – Explains a reference made in the example file.txt file.
- Emacs How To – An emacs tutorial.
- Emacs built-in tutorial – Start
- Geany – A source code editor.
- jEdit – A source code editor.
- Kate – A source code editor.
- LibreOffice – LibreOffice not only includes a word processor, but it is a complete office suite with a spreadsheet program, a database, and presentation software.
- Sublime Text – A commercial product that runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
- The Beginner’s Guide to Nano
- Vi tutorial
vimtutorfrom the command line start the vim tutorial.
Transferring and Copying Files
- Connecting via SSH with Keys – SSH key information covered earlier in this book.
- Cyberduck – FTP and SFTP client for Mac and Windows.
- FileZilla – FTP and SFTP client for Mac, Linux, and Windows.
- FireFTP – FTP and SFTP client Firefox that is Mac, Linux, and Windows compatible.
- FlashFXP – FTP, FTPS, and SFTP client for Windows.
- Transmit – FTP and SFTP client for Mac.
- WinSCP – FTP and SFTP client for Windows.
Welcome Back to Shell
- Bash it – A framework for managing your bash configuration.
- Command Line Completion – Tab completion explained.
- Configuration Files for Shell – A list of files used to configure shell environments.
- Dotfiles.org – A place to upload, download, and share your dotfiles.
- Dotfiles.github.io – A guide to dotfiles on github.com.
- Oh my ZSH – A community-driven framework for managing your zsh configuration.
- Using Bash History Interactively – Official Bash history documentation.
- Unix Shell – An article on the shell user interface.
Processes and Job Control
Scheduling Repeated Jobs with Cron
- CronWFT – Decodes crontab lines. Print out human readable output.
- CronMaker – A utility which helps you to build cron expressions.
- Redirection – A chapter on this book on I/O redirection.
Switching Users and Running Commands as Others
Appendix A: Abbreviations and Acronyms
ACL – access control list
APT – advanced packaging tool (apt)
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
CentOS – Community ENTerprise Operating System
cd – Change directory
CLI – command line interface
crontab – cron table
dir – directory
distro – Distribution, a collection of user programs, software, and the Linux kernel to create an operating environment.
FOSS – free open source software
FTP – file transfer protocol
GID – group identification
GB – gigabyte
GNU – GNU’s Not UNIX. (See GNU.org)
GUI – graphical user interface
HP – Hewlett-Packard
IBM – International Business Machines
KB – kilobyte
I/O – input/output
LFS – Linux from scratch. (See http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/)
LSB – Linux Standard Base
LUG – Linux user group
LVM – logical volume management
MB – megabyte
MBR – master boot record
NFS – network file system
NTP – network time protocol
OS – operating system
PID – process identification number
POSIX – portable operating system interface
pwd – present working directory
RHEL – RedHat Enterprise Linux
RHCE – Red Hat Certified Engineer
RPM – RedHat Package Manager
SAN – storage area network
SELinux – Security Enhanced Linux
SFTP – secure file transfer protocol or SSH file transfer protocol
SGID – set group ID
SLES – SuSE Linux Enterprise Server
SSH – secure shell
STDIN – Standard input
STDOUT – Standard output
STDERR – Standard error
su – superuser
sudo – superuser do
SUID – set user ID
symlink – symbolic link
tar – tape archive
TB – terabyte
TTY – teletype terminal
UID – user identification
VDI – virtual disk image
X – X window system
YUM – Yellowdog Updater, Modified (yum)
Appendix B: FAQ
Q: What is Linux?
Linux is an open-source operating system modelled after UNIX.
Q: What is the Linux kernel?
The Linux kernel handles the interactions between the software running on the system and the hardware. To learn more, visit the official Linux kernel website at http://www.kernel.org.
Q: Which Linux distribution should I use?
If your goal is to eventually become a Linux system administrator, focus on CentOS or Ubuntu. CentOS is a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) derivative. As a general rule, CentOS and RHEL are often found in corporate environments. Ubuntu is popular with startups and smaller companies that run their operations in the cloud. If you are using Linux for your own personal reasons, choose a distribution that appeals to you. To get some ideas look at DistroWatch.com‘s top 10 distributions page.
Here are some other common Linux distributions:
There are several special purpose Linux distributions that focus on a single area. Examples areas of focus include education, minimalism, multimedia, networking/firewalls, and security. Here is just a sampling of the available specialty distros.
- ArtistX – A DVD which turns a computer into a full multimedia production studio.
- Edubuntu – An education oriented operating system.
- live.linuX-gamers.net – A live Linux distribution focused on gaming.
- Mythbuntu – Mythbuntu is an official Ubuntu flavor focused upon setting up a standalone MythTV based PVR (personal video recorder) system.
- Parted Magic – A Hard disk management solution.
- Scientific Linux – Scientific Linux is put together by Fermilab, CERN, and various other labs and universities around the world. Its primary purpose is to reduce duplicated effort of the labs, and to have a common install base for the various experimenters.
- Ubuntu Studio – Provides the full range of multimedia content creation applications for audio, graphics, video, photography and publishing.
- VortexBox – VortexBox is a multifunctional solution to rip, store and stream CDs, digital music and Internet radio.
Q: How do I install additional software?
The two most common options for finding and installing software in Linux are
apt. Yum is used on RPM based Linux distributions like CentOS and apt is used on Debian based distributions like Ubuntu.
Q: Can I use Microsoft Office in Linux?
Q: How do I run XYZ program in Linux?
To find Linux alternatives for software you use on Mac and Windows, visit http://alternativeto.net/.
Appendix C: Trademarks
BSD/OS is a trademark of Berkeley Software Design, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
Facebook is a registered trademark of Facebook, Inc..
Firefox is a registered trademark of the Mozilla Foundation.
HP and HEWLETT-PACKARD are registered trademarks that belong to Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries.
Mac and OS X are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
Open Source is a registered certification mark of Open Source Initiative.
Sun and Oracle Solaris are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporatoin and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries.
All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.